Lesson #7 Multimedia Use in Interface Implementation for Telematic-based Learning

12 Apr

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good day everyone! 😀

In this post, I’ll share on media selection for educational multimedia courseware. The title for this post is actually the exact title for the article which I refer to explain on media selection.

According to Rowntree (1996) in this article, selecting media for the educational courseware requires the developer to consider the needs and abilities of learners to multimedia access, e.specially for distance course multimedia courseware. Several criteria have been listed out and I believe that this list can be a good guidance for courseware developer to select media.

1. Do any of the learning objectives dictate certain media?

the media chosen needs to be aligned with the objectives or purpose to develop the courseware

2. Which media will be physically available to the learners?

need to consider the availability of the media for instance, whether the video or audio can be played by the user

3. Which media will be most convenient for the learners to use?

need to consider which media is easiest to be available for user

4. Are any media likely to be particularly helpful in motivating learners?

whether the media chosen can motivate user or the opposite

5. Are you under pressure from the organisation to use/avoid certain media?

need to consider the organization on choosing the media

6. Which media will you (the teacher) be most comfortable with?

need to consider the teacher’s comfortability on the media used

7. For which media will learners already have the necessary skills to use?

need to consider the available skills and expertise of the user on selecting media

8. For which media do you (the teacher) have the necessary skills to use?

need to consider the skills and expertise of the teacher

9. Which media will you be able to afford to use?

need to consider the availability of the media, and the affordability of the developer to purchase the media

10. Which media will the learners be able to afford to use?

also need to consider the affordability of the media for user too

11. Which media might you call on to back up the main media and/or to ensure
adequate variety?

also need to consider for other media as back up, in case the published media could not function well.

Other than the criteria above, the developer also has to consider the cost and the speed of data transmission of the media chosen to be published in the multimedia courseware. As in the article: Interface is the focal point and control center of any courseware. Interface implementation includes; 1) screen development, 2) interaction providing, and 3) navigation organization.

Besides that, another important element in developing a multimedia courseware is the interface implementation, or in my own understanding, it is referring to the interface design of the courseware.

Several guidelines that are highly encouraged to be followed are as below:

  1. An user interface should be extremely intuitive, eliminating the need for written instructions
  2. proper use of icons, good screen design, logical ordering of content, and a consistent structure.
  3. all screens should have same basic elements (buttons in same location)
  4. have enough room to include graphics or text on any given screen
  5. make sense at first glance
  6. be intuitive in regard to design sense, button placement and logical data flow
  7. user should be able to intuitively locate whatever it is that interest them
  8. good and excellent navigation system
  9. extra guidance
  10. interactive maps (show levels, sub-levels)
  11. reward for user (good feedback)
  12. a logical flow between different function
  13. glowing and pulsing buttons
  14. sound effects
  15. don’t include too much dynamic media
  16. layout of the screen should read easily and be able to be browsed quickly
  17. interesting design for background (good color composition – never overpower foreground elements)

Until then, wassalam^^


Lesson #6 Visual Design

12 Apr

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good day everyone! 😀


In this lesson, the emphasise is on VISUAL DESIGN. In simpler words, VISUAL DESIGN means planning how your multimedia courseware will look like. Some important aspects that need to be look upon seriously are:

 What colours will look good together on your
 What fonts or styles you will use for the written
part of your courseware?
 What graphics and multimedia effects are
 How will all of these elements be combined or
arranged into an attractive layout?

Those aspects of colors, fonts and others need to be considered depends on the theme chosen for the courseware. Some other elements that somehow could indicate the theme for the courseware are the images, content and links, text, buttons, navigation bars, animation, video, etc.

From the lecture, I learnt that, there are several tasks that the courseware developer need to plan and decide critically when it comes to visual design. There are;

 Define the visual theme and style
 Design a system of screen layouts
 Create the structural elements of each screen
(background, windows, etc)
 Create the control elements
 Integrate the media elements
 Create PROTOTYPE Screens

Other than that, another important element which is also categorized as very important is the typography used in the courseware. A list of guidance as shown below can be referred;

Keep it simple
• Limit number of fonts per screen and per
• Use the same fonts consistently throughout the
Make good font choices
• Sans serif vs. serif ?
• Commonly installed fonts
• Mood
• Readability

Until then, wassalam^^

Lesson #5 Interaction Design

12 Apr

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good day everyone! 😀

In this post, I’ll explain on INTERACTION DESIGN of a multimedia courseware. In this part, the focus is on the mechanics of the design and answers the question “How should it work?”

When we utter the word ‘interaction’ in related to multimedia courseware design, it is somehow has strong connectivity with INTERACTIVITY. In designing multimedia courseware, the interactivity does not solely refer to interaction between human being, but it mostly refers to the interaction occurs between the courseware and the user itself. Thus, several elements such as buttons, icons, text, screen, video, audio, etc. play important role in contributing to excellent interactivity of the courseware. One way to measure the effectiveness of the courseware developed in education field is the interactivity efficiency with the user. Therefore, the developer needs to have much attention on the interaction design of a courseware.



information design provides the logical organizing principles for the program information by detailing content and structure. While designing interaction turns the information design into a storyboard which shows navigation pathways, media inclusions and controls. We can see several examples of storyboards below.




 Moving from information design to interaction
design means turning information into an
experience. In other words, it means that, it would be
 Motivating users to have the experience, by giving
them clear guidance and options.
 Creating an interesting journey, or clear path,
through the information.
 Giving users controls that allow them to go where
they want and do what they want.
 Making the experience as easy and intuitive as

3 essential elements in INTERACTION DESIGN:

  1. organization
  2. navigation
  3. interactivity


– List all possible content categories

–  Start to group things by topic

– Refine the topic groups

– Arrange the groups into a structure


– Effective navigation

1. Where am I? – let the user know their current page/
2. Where can I go? – let users know where they are in
relation to the rest of the courseware.
3. How do I get there? – provide consistent, easy to
understand link.
4. How do I get back to where I started? – provide ways
to let users return to their starting point.


 Critical tasks of interaction design.

  •  Create a guidance system to orient users.
  •  Design the navigation system.
  •  Define what happens on each screen.
  •  Design the controls for interaction.
  •  Determine how much interaction is to be included.

 Guidance System

  •  The challenge is to provide designs that are intuitive and easy to use, even in the absence of well known paradigms.
  •  Orienting users within the information means telling people what they are going to do, where they can go, what they can see. ”Give users the lay of the land’.
  • Introduce appropriate metaphors and organizing principles.
  • Once users know where they are, and what there is to see and do, they’ll feel more comfortable using the program.

 Navigation System

  • Minimise travel – create the simplest and shortest path between any two points.
  • Minimise depth – create a hierarchy with the fewest possible levels.
  • Minimise redundancy – avoid creating multiple path to the same place from the same screen.

 Direct Access: provide the simplest path between any two points in the product

  • Designing the controls for interaction
  • This means specifying all controls the user will use to interact with the content.
  •  At the macro level this means ascertaining how the controls in the product work together.
  • At the micro level it means specifying what type of controls to include in the product.
  •  For example: built in or custom controls?


Until then, wassalam^^

Lesson #4 Multimedia Courseware Design Fundamentals

12 Apr

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good day everyone! 😀

This post will cover the lesson particularly on the multimedia courseware design. Thus, several vital elements on DESIGN will be explained.

Basically, the purpose of courseware design is to inform/ persuade users, deliver content and presenting content in a away that benefits the user. There are four primary aspects that influence multimedia design, which include: CONTENT, TECHNOLOGY, VISUAL and ECONOMICS


Thus, all these 4 elements are divided into 3 parts which are (INFORMATION DESIGN, INTERACTION DESIGN, VISUAL DESIGN) as in the figure




  • Message
  • Audience
  • Purpose
  • Prior knowledge
  • Organization of Information


 Does the product content already exist and can it be
 The quantity must be right; sufficient but not too
much information.
 The content must be factually accurate.
 The content must be organised into a logical
 The design decision is how best to communicate the

 How is the information in the MM product organised?

 How will the information be presented?


  • Several factors need to be considered such as the learning theories, learning/teaching strategies and learning styles.

The most famous learning theories that have been introduced are Behaviorisme, Cognitive & Constructivism. As in the previous post, I have mentioned on some of the activities under behaviourism that can be implemented for multimedia courseware development. There are; DRILL AND PRACTICE, TUTORIAL, SIMULATION, GAMES and PROBLEM SOLVING. Meanwhile, for cognitive and constructivisme, the suggested activity are as follow:

  1. problem based learning
  2. project based learning
  3. cooperative learning
  4. situated,scenario based learning
  5. case based learning
  6. inquiry based learning


Basically, BEHAVIOURISME promotes learning that takes place through the change in behaviour, COGNITIVISM emphasises on facts within the learner, and CONSTRUCTIVISM highlights on the importance of experience/ prior knowledge in learning.



Until then, wassalam^^.

Lesson #3 Project Management in Multimedia Design and Production

12 Apr

Assalamualaikum and good day everyone!

This time, the lesson covers 4 main issues which include the multimedia d’ment team. project management, the process and tools. We will also see the difference and similarity between multimedia d’ment to other software d’ment projects.


– special experts are needed to handle the graphics and other media skills

– focus of design mostly depends on the needs of the user

– instructional design is vitally needed for this kind of project to be developed


– the life cycle for the project development is still applied. (analysis, design, implementation, testing, delivery, maintenance)

– management skills: require people with different talents to interact with each other and come out with excellent project.

Basically, to develop a multimedia project, a team with varieties of talents and skills are needed. The skills require particular person or groups of experts to produce creativity, deal with the business matters and some to deal with the technical matters. A multimedia development team requires skills on; PROJECT MANAGEMENT, CONTENT, STRATEGY, PROGRAMMING AND ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN.

The task for each skill is as in the table below:




There are 3 key elements in developing a project which include COST, TIME and QUALITY. It can be defined in the picture below.


1st diagram: as more of any element is demanded, lines to the other two become longer (stretched)

2nd diagram: time scale (reduced), budget and quality (increased)


  1. pre-production
  2. production
  3. post production
  4. delivery

In pre-production, the steps below is required to be carefully planned and decided by the developer:

  • analysis, planning and design
  • create blueprint
  • audience?
  • message? vision?
  • purpose? objective?
  • organization of the information
  • interactivity
  • navigation
  • usability
  • interface

Meanwhile, in the production, the following elements need to be considered:

  • content research
  • interface design
  • graphics development
  • animation development
  • audio recording
  • video production
  • authoring

Finally, in the post-production step, these elements below need to be counted in:

  • testing and evaluation – content, function, usability
  • feedback from client
  • product revision
  • documentation and packaging


In order to develop a multimedia project, a project planning tool is highly encouraged to be used by developer. The most famous planning tool which can be referred easily is Gant Chart.



Until then, wassalam ^^

Lesson #2 Multimedia Development Process

26 Mar

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good  day my dear readers (;p)

In this class, we have been exposed with the process that is required in developing a multimedia courseware. From what that I understood (and also explained by my lecturer), a courseware development process is portrayed as a system which includes frameworks, methodologies, modelling tools and language.

There is also a multimedia development life cycle.


Based on the life-cycle above, you can see that the design phase is highlighted. I could say that this phase is given much priority because it requires the developer to consider several vital elements such as the content, the platform, media and user interface. In other words, this phase can be categorized as one of the most important phases in the process of multimedia development.

Nonetheless, since we are in the field of education, there are several frameworks that have been implemented by the technology expert in developing educational courseware such as ADDIE Model, Hannafic and Peck design model, Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model and Waterfall model. However, based on my own experience, ADDIE model could be an excellent model to be referred and implemented. You may refer to the picture below to have a clearer view on what ADDIE model stands for.


In ADDIE Model, the evaluation process takes place at each of the step. That’s the reason why I believe this model could serve the best for a multimedia developer. By having to evaluate each step, the developer will always be alert if any problem occurs. Besides, it’s easier to remember ADDIE model since the name comes from its own abbreviation: A (analysis), D (design), D (develop), I (implement), E (evaluation).

We also learnt that, in the first stage, which is Analysis the needs or the requirements are as in below:

  • Audience analysis: Who is it for?
  • Needs analysis: Why develop it?
  • Content analysis: What will it cover?
  • Resource analysis: How and how much?
  • Estimate: When will it get done?
  • Where: platform, marketing and distribution?

That’s all that we’ve been learning for the lecture.


Until then, wassalam (^^,)v

Lesson #1 Types of Instructional Courseware

25 Feb

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh and good day everyone!

Today is the first day I entered the class of CD-ROM BASED MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT. Although we are in the second week, today’s class becomes our first meeting since this semesters started last week on Wednesday. So, our class was automatically not counted in the first week.

We were explained by Dr. Norasyikin (our lecturer for the first 8 weeks) that she will be doing team-teaching with En. Juhazren. En. Juhazren will take over the class right after the mid semester break. Through the ice-breaking session, we were introduced with the basic idea on what we will learn in this course. In my opinion, it’s basically related to the development of cd-rom based learning course ware. Thus, I believe that we will be exposed to lots of related theories regarding the development of cd-rom learning course ware.

As the initial introduction of this subject, Dr. Norasyikin showed several slides on TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL COURSEWARE. I found that the information shared by Dr. Norasyikin were kind of similar to what I have learnt previously in the degree year. There are 5 types of intructional courseware which have been normally and widely used such as drill and practice, tutorials, simulation, instructional games and problem-solving.

DRILL & PRACTICEstructured and repetitive practice of previously learned concepts – provides students with adequate practice so they can transfer learned material into long term memory – computers are private and give students plenty of time to answer the question – gives students immediate feedback so they know whether they got the answer right or wrong

You may click the links given below to check out some examples of drill and practice courseware.



TUTORIALS :  help students master a topic – provide students with immediate feedback and increase their motivation – allow the student to learn at their own pace and provide them with appropriate learning activities –

You may click the links given below to check out some examples of tutorials courseware.



SIMULATION : provides models of real or imaginary systems that are used to enhance instruction – it gets the students involved in learning – physical simulation allows students to manipulate objects to help them learn about completing a task – iterative simulations speed up or slow down a process to the help the student understand it better – procedural simulations teach students steps of a process by providing them with visual models – situational simulations teach students how to handle certain situations such as how to operate a business –

You may click the links given below to check out some examples of tutorials courseware.



INSTRUCTIONAL GAMESused as rewards or to reinforce a skill – have to use what they have previously learned if they want to get a high score – increase motivation

You may click the links given below to check out some websites that allows teachers to create online games based on what they have been going over in class.

PROBLEM SOLVING SOFTWARE  : provides good hands on experience with skills such as logical sequencing – figuring out relevant information to solve problems – students will find this type of software interesting as it teaches how to solve various problem solving situations –
You may click the links given below to check out some examples of problem solving courseware.
Check out the links that I have provided above ya! You will surely enjoy the interfaces, insya Allah. And feel free to produce your own courseware too (through the links for games). After all, practice makes perfect, right? 🙂
Last but not least, I wish that all of my classmates and I will gain lots and lots and lots of knowledge throughout this class. Plus, may we produce the best learning courseware which can be beneficial in the teaching and learning process too!
Until then, wassalam (^^,)v